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PostgreSQL pgBadger

  • pgBadger is a PostgreSQL log analyzer built for speed with fully reports from your PostgreSQL log file. It's a single and small Perl script that outperforms any other PostgreSQL log analyzer.
  • It is written in pure Perl and uses a JavaScript library (flotr2) to draw graphs so that you don't need to install any additional Perl modules or other packages. Furthermore, this library gives us more features such as zooming. pgBadger also uses the Bootstrap JavaScript library and the FontAwesome webfont for better design. Everything is embedded.
  • pgBadger is able to autodetect your log file format (syslog, stderr or csvlog). It is designed to parse huge log files as well as gzip compressed files. See a complete list of features below. Supported compressed format are gzip, bzip2 and xz. For the xz format you must have an xz version upper than 5.05 that supports the --robot option.
  • All charts are zoomable and can be saved as PNG images.
  • You can also limit pgBadger to only report errors or remove any part of the report using command line options.
  • pgBadger supports any custom format set into the log_line_prefix directive of your postgresql.conf file as long as it at least specify the %t and %p patterns.
  • pgBadger allows parallel processing of a single log file or multiple files through the use of the -j option specifying the number of CPUs.
  • If you want to save system performance you can also use log_duration instead of log_min_duration_statement to have reports on duration and number of queries only.

    pgBadger reports everything about your SQL queries:
            Overall statistics.
            The most frequent waiting queries.
            Queries that waited the most.
            Queries generating the most temporary files.
            Queries generating the largest temporary files.
            The slowest queries.
            Queries that took up the most time.
            The most frequent queries.
            The most frequent errors.
            Histogram of query times.
            Histogram of sessions times.
            Users involved in top queries.
            Applications involved in top queries.
            Queries generating the most cancellation.
            Queries most cancelled.

The following reports are also available with hourly charts divided into periods of five minutes:
            SQL queries statistics.
            Temporary file statistics.
            Checkpoints statistics.
            Autovacuum and autoanalyze statistics.
            Cancelled queries.
            Error events (panic, fatal, error and warning).
            Error class distribution.

There are also some pie charts about distribution of:
            Locks statistics.
            Queries by type (select/insert/update/delete).
            Distribution of queries type per database/application
            Sessions per database/user/client/application.
            Connections per database/user/client/application.
            Autovacuum and autoanalyze per table.
            Queries per user and total duration per user.

All charts are zoomable and can be saved as PNG images. SQL queries reported are highlighted and beautified automatically.

 pgBadger is also able to parse PgBouncer log files and to create the following reports:
            Request Throughput
            Bytes I/O Throughput
            Queries Average duration
            Simultaneous sessions
            Histogram of sessions times
            Sessions per database
            Sessions per user
            Sessions per host
            Established connections
            Connections per database
            Connections per user
            Connections per host
            Most used reserved pools
            Most Frequent Errors/Events
  • You can also have incremental reports with one report per day and a cumulative report per week. Two multiprocess modes are available to speed up log parsing, one using one core per log file, and the second using multiple cores to parse a single file. These modes can be combined.
  • Histogram granularity can be adjusted using the -A command line option. By default they will report the mean of each top queries/errors occurring per hour, but you can specify the granularity down to the minute.
  • pgBadger can also be used in a central place to parse remote log files using a passwordless SSH connection. This mode can be used with compressed files and in the multiprocess per file mode (-J) but can not be used with the CSV log format.

pgBadger comes as a single Perl script - you do not need anything other than a modern Perl distribution. Charts are rendered using a JavaScript library so you don't need anything other than a web browser. Your browser will do all the work.

If you planned to parse PostgreSQL CSV log files you might need some Perl Modules:
Text::CSV_XS - to parse PostgreSQL CSV log files.
This module is optional, if you don't have PostgreSQL log in the CSV format you don't need to install it.

If you want to export statistics as JSON file you need an additional
JSON::XS - JSON serialising/deserialising, done correctly and fast
This module is optional, if you don't select the json output format you don't need to install it.

Compressed log file format is autodetected from the file extension. If pgBadger find a gz extension it will use the zcat utility, with a bz2 extension it will use bzcat and if the file extension is zip or xz then the unzip or xz utilities will be used.

If those utilities are not found in the PATH environment variable then use the --zcat command line option to change this path. For example:
--zcat="/usr/local/bin/gunzip -c" or --zcat="/usr/local/bin/bzip2 -dc"
--zcat="C:\tools\unzip -p"
By default pgBadger will use the zcat, bzcat and unzip utilities following the file extension. If you use the default autodetection compress format you can mixed gz, bz2, xz or zip files. Specifying a custom value to --zcat option will remove this feature of mixed compressed format.

Note that multiprocessing can not be used with compressed files or CSV files as well as under Windows platform.

    Download the tarball from GitHub and unpack the archive as follow:
            tar xzf pgbadger-7.x.tar.gz
            cd pgbadger-7.x/
            perl Makefile.PL
            make && sudo make install
    This will copy the Perl script pgbadger to /usr/local/bin/pgbadger by
    default and the man page into /usr/local/share/man/man1/pgbadger.1.
    Those are the default installation directories for 'site' install.

    If you want to install all under /usr/ location, use INSTALLDIRS='perl'
    as an argument of Makefile.PL. The script will be installed into
    /usr/bin/pgbadger and the manpage into /usr/share/man/man1/pgbadger.1.

For example, to install everything just like Debian does, proceed as follows:
perl Makefile.PL INSTALLDIRS=vendor
By default INSTALLDIRS is set to site.

You must enable and set some configuration directives in your postgresql.conf before starting.
You must first enable SQL query logging to have something to parse:
log_min_duration_statement = 0
 Here every statement will be logged, on a busy server you may want to increase this value to only log queries with a longer duration. Note that if you have log_statement set to 'all' nothing will be logged through the log_min_duration_statement directive. See the next chapter for more information.

With 'stderr' log format, log_line_prefix must be at least:
 log_line_prefix = '%t [%p]: [%l-1] '
Log line prefix could add user, database name, application name and client ip address as follows:
 log_line_prefix = '%t [%p]: [%l-1] user=%u,db=%d,app=%a,client=%h '
or for syslog log file format:
log_line_prefix = 'user=%u,db=%d,app=%aclient=%h '
Log line prefix for stderr output could also be:
log_line_prefix = '%t [%p]: [%l-1] db=%d,user=%u,app=%a,client=%h '
or for syslog output:
 log_line_prefix = 'db=%d,user=%u,app=%a,client=%h '
You need to enable other parameters in postgresql.conf to get more information from your log files:
            log_checkpoints = on
            log_connections = on
            log_disconnections = on
            log_lock_waits = on
            log_temp_files = 0
            log_autovacuum_min_duration = 0
            log_error_verbosity = default
Do not enable log_statement as its log format will not be parsed by pgBadger.

Of course your log messages should be in English without locale support:
but this is not only recommended by pgBadger.
  • Note: the session line [%l-1] is just used to match the default prefix for "stderr". The -1 has no real purpose and basically is not used in pgBadger statistics / graphs. You can safely remove them from the log_line_prefix but you will need to set the --prefix command line option accordingly.
  • log_min_duration_statement, log_duration and log_statement If you want the query statistics to include the actual query strings,you must set log_min_duration_statement to 0 or more milliseconds.
  • If you just want to report duration and number of queries and don't want all details about queries, set log_min_duration_statement to -1 to disable it and enable log_duration in your postgresql.conf file. If you want to add the most common request report you can either choose to set log_min_duration_statement to a higher value or choose to enable log_statement.
  • Enabling log_min_duration_statement will add reports about slowest queries and queries that took up the most time. Take care that if you have log_statement set to 'all' nothing will be logged with log_line_prefix.
    Usage: pgbadger [options] logfile [...]

            PostgreSQL log analyzer with fully detailed reports and graphs.


        logfile can be a single log file, a list of files, or a shell command
        returning a list of files. If you want to pass log content from stdin
        use - as filename. Note that input from stdin will not work with csvlog.


        -a | --average N       : number of minutes to build the average graphs
                                 of queries and connections. Default 5 minutes.
        -A | --histo-average N : number of minutes to build the histogram graphs
                                 of queries. Default 60 minutes.
        -b | --begin datetime  : start date/time for the data to be parsed in log.
        -B | --bar-graph       : use bar graph instead of line by default.
        -c | --dbclient host   : only report on entries for the given client host.
        -C | --nocomment       : remove comments like /* ... */ from queries.
        -d | --dbname database : only report on entries for the given database.
        -D | --dns-resolv      : client ip addresses are replaced by their DNS name.
                                 Be warned that this can really slow down pgBadger.
        -e | --end datetime    : end date/time for the data to be parsed in log.
        -f | --format logtype  : possible values: syslog, syslog2, stderr, csv and
                                 pgbouncer. Use this option when pgBadger is not
                                 able to auto-detect the log format Default: stderr.
        -G | --nograph         : disable graphs on HTML output. Enabled by default.
        -h | --help            : show this message and exit.
        -i | --ident name      : programname used as syslog ident. Default: postgres
        -I | --incremental     : use incremental mode, reports will be generated by
                                 days in a separate directory, --outdir must be set.
        -j | --jobs number     : number of jobs to run at same time. Default is 1,
                                 run as single process.
        -J | --Jobs number     : number of log file to parse in parallel. Default
                                 is 1, run as single process.
        -l | --last-parsed file: allow incremental log parsing by registering the
                                 last datetime and line parsed. Useful if you want
                                 to watch errors since last run or if you want one
                                 report per day with a log rotated each week.
        -L | logfile-list file : file containing a list of log file to parse.
        -m | --maxlength size  : maximum length of a query, it will be restricted to
                                 the given size. Default: no truncate
        -M | --no-multiline    : do not collect multiline statement to avoid garbage
                                 especially on errors that generate a huge report.
        -n | --nohighlight     : disable SQL code highlighting.
        -N | --appname name    : only report on entries for given application name
        -o | --outfile filename: define the filename for the output. Default depends
                                 on the output format: out.html, out.txt, out.bin,
                                 out.json or out.tsung.
                                 With module JSON::XS installed, you can output file
                                 in JSON format either.
                                 To dump output to stdout use - as filename.
        -O | --outdir path     : directory where out file must be saved.
        -p | --prefix string   : the value of your custom log_line_prefix as
                                 defined in your postgresql.conf. Only use it if you
                                 aren't using one of the standard prefixes specified
                                 in the pgBadger documentation, such as if your
                                 prefix includes additional variables like client ip
                                 or application name. See examples below.
        -P | --no-prettify     : disable SQL queries prettify formatter.
        -q | --quiet           : don't print anything to stdout, not even a progress
        -r | --remote-host ip  : set the host where to execute the cat command on
                                 remote logfile to parse locally the file.
        -R | --retention N     : number of weeks to keep in incremental mode. Default
                                 to 0, disabled. Used to set the number of weeks to
                                 keep in output directory. Older weeks and days
                                 directory are automatically removed.
        -s | --sample number   : number of query samples to store. Default: 3.
        -S | --select-only     : only report SELECT queries.
        -t | --top number      : number of queries to store/display. Default: 20.
        -T | --title string    : change title of the HTML page report.
        -u | --dbuser username : only report on entries for the given user.
        -U | --exclude-user username : exclude entries for the specified user from
        -v | --verbose         : enable verbose or debug mode. Disabled by default.
        -V | --version         : show pgBadger version and exit.
        -w | --watch-mode      : only report errors just like logwatch could do.
        -x | --extension       : output format. Values: text, html, bin, json or
                                 tsung. Default: html
        -X | --extra-files     : in incremental mode allow pgBadger to write CSS and
                                 JS files in the output directory as separate files.
        -z | --zcat exec_path  : set the full path to the zcat program. Use it if
                                 zcat or bzcat or unzip is not in your path.
        -Z | --timezone +/-XX  : Set the number of hours from GMT of the timezone.
                                 Use this to adjust date/time in JavaScript graphs.
        --pie-limit num        : pie data lower than num% will show a sum instead.
        --exclude-query regex  : any query matching the given regex will be excluded
                                 from the report. For example: "^(VACUUM|COMMIT)"
                                 You can use this option multiple times.
        --exclude-file filename: path of the file which contains all the regex to
                                 use to exclude queries from the report. One regex
                                 per line.
        --include-query regex  : any query that does not match the given regex will
                                 be excluded from the report. You can use this
                                 option multiple times. For example: "(tbl1|tbl2)".
        --include-file filename: path of the file which contains all the regex of
                                 the queries to include from the report. One regex
                                 per line.
        --disable-error        : do not generate error report.
        --disable-hourly       : do not generate hourly report.
        --disable-type         : do not generate report of queries by type, database
                                 or user.
        --disable-query        : do not generate query reports (slowest, most
                                 frequent, queries by users, by database, ...).
        --disable-session      : do not generate session report.
        --disable-connection   : do not generate connection report.
        --disable-lock         : do not generate lock report.
        --disable-temporary    : do not generate temporary report.
        --disable-checkpoint   : do not generate checkpoint/restartpoint report.
        --disable-autovacuum   : do not generate autovacuum report.
        --charset              : used to set the HTML charset to be used.
                                 Default: utf-8.
        --csv-separator        : used to set the CSV field separator, default: ,
        --exclude-time  regex  : any timestamp matching the given regex will be
                                 excluded from the report. Example: "2013-04-12 .*"
                                 You can use this option multiple times.
        --exclude-appname name : exclude entries for the specified application name
                                 from report. Example: "pg_dump".
        --exclude-line regex   : pgBadger will start to exclude any log entry that
                                 will match the given regex. Can be used multiple
        --anonymize            : obscure all literals in queries, useful to hide
                                 confidential data.
        --noreport             : prevent pgBadger to create reports in incremental
        --log-duration         : force pgBadger to associate log entries generated
                                 by both log_duration = on and log_statement = 'all'
        --enable-checksum      : used to add a md5 sum under each query report.
        --journalctl command   : command to use to replace PostgreSQL logfile by
                                 a call to journalctl. Basically it might be:
                                    journalctl -u postgresql-9.5
        --pid-dir dirpath      : set the path of the directory where the pid file
                                 will be written to be able to run two pgBadger at
                                 the same time.
        --rebuild              : used to rebuild all html reports in incremental
                                 output directories where there is binary data files.
        --pgbouncer-only       : only show PgBouncer related menu in the header.
        --start-monday         : in incremental mode, weeks start on sunday. Use
                                 this option to start on monday.
        --normalized-only      : only dump all normalized query to out.txt

    pgBadger is able to parse a remote log file using a passwordless ssh
    connection. Use the -r or --remote-host to set the host ip address or
    hostname. There's also some additional options to fully control the ssh

        --ssh-program ssh        path to the ssh program to use. Default: ssh.
        --ssh-user username      connection login name. Default to running user.
        --ssh-identity file      path to the identity file to use.
        --ssh-timeout second     timeout to ssh connection failure. Default 10 secs.
        --ssh-option  options    list of -o options to use for the ssh connection.
                                 Options always used:
                                     -o ConnectTimeout=$ssh_timeout
                                     -o PreferredAuthentications=hostbased,publickey
            pgbadger /var/log/postgresql.log
            pgbadger /var/log/postgres.log.2.gz /var/log/postgres.log.1.gz 
            pgbadger /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-2012-05-*
            pgbadger --exclude-query="^(COPY|COMMIT)" /var/log/postgresql.log
            pgbadger -b "2012-06-25 10:56:11" -e "2012-06-25 10:59:11" 
            cat /var/log/postgres.log | pgbadger -
            # Log prefix with stderr log output
            pgbadger --prefix '%t [%p]: [%l-1] user=%u,db=%d,client=%h' 
            pgbadger --prefix '%m %u@%d %p %r %a : ' /pglog/postgresql.log
            # Log line prefix with syslog log output
            pgbadger --prefix 'user=%u,db=%d,client=%h,appname=%a' 
            # Use my 8 CPUs to parse my 10GB file faster, much faster
            pgbadger -j 8 /pglog/postgresql-9.1-main.log
    Generate Tsung sessions XML file with select queries only:
 pgbadger -S -o sessions.tsung --prefix '%t [%p]: [%l-1] user=%u,db=%d ' /pglog/postgresql-9.1.log
            Reporting errors every week by cron job:
30 23 * * 1 /usr/bin/pgbadger -q -w /var/log/postgresql.log -o /var/reports/pg_errors.html 
         Generate report every week using incremental behavior:
0 4 * * 1 /usr/bin/pgbadger -q `find /var/log/ -mtime -7 -name "postgresql.log*"` 
-o /var/reports/pg_errors-`date +%F`.html -l /var/reports/pgbadger_incremental_file.dat
    This supposes that your log file and HTML report are also rotated every week.

    Or better, use the auto-generated incremental reports:
0 4 * * * /usr/bin/pgbadger -I -q /var/log/postgresql/postgresql.log.1  -O /var/www/pg_reports/
    will generate a report per day and per week.

    In incremental mode, you can also specify the number of week to keep in
    the reports:
/usr/bin/pgbadger --retention 2 -I -q /var/log/postgresql/postgresql.log.1 -O /var/www/pg_reports/

    If you have a pg_dump at 23:00 and 13:00 each day during half an hour,
    you can use pgBadger as follow to exclude these period from the report:
pgbadger --exclude-time "2013-09-.* (23|13):.*" postgresql.log
    This will help avoid having COPY statements, as generated by pg_dump, on
    top of the list of slowest queries. You can also use --exclude-appname
    "pg_dump" to solve this problem in a simpler way.

    You can also parse journalctl output just as if it was a log file:
 pgbadger --journalctl 'journalctl -u postgresql-9.5'
    or worst, call it from a remote host:
  pgbadger -r --journalctl 'journalctl -u postgresql-9.5'
    you don't need to specify any log file at command line, but if you have
    others PostgreSQL log files to parse, you can add them as usual.

    To rebuild all incremental html reports after, proceed as follow:
        rm /path/to/reports/*.js
        rm /path/to/reports/*.css
        pgbadger -X -I -O /path/to/reports/ --rebuild
    it will also update all resource files (JS and CSS).

To enable parallel processing you just have to use the -j N option where N is the number of cores you want to use.
    pgBadger will then proceed as follow:

            for each log file
                chunk size = int(file size / N)
                look at start/end offsets of these chunks
                fork N processes and seek to the start offset of each chunk
                    each process will terminate when the parser reach the end offset
                    of its chunk
                    each process write stats into a binary temporary file
               wait for all children has terminated
            All binary temporary files generated will then be read and loaded into
            memory to build the html output.

    With that method, at start/end of chunks pgBadger may truncate or omit a
    maximum of N queries per log file which is an insignificant gap if you
    have millions of queries in your log file. The chance that the query
    that you were looking for is lost is near 0, this is why I think this
    gap is livable. Most of the time the query is counted twice but

    When you have many small log files and many CPUs it is speedier to
    dedicate one core to one log file at a time. To enable this behavior you
    have to use option -J N instead. With 200 log files of 10MB each the use
    of the -J option starts being really interesting with 8 Cores. Using
    this method you will be sure not to lose any queries in the reports.

    He are a benchmark done on a server with 8 CPUs and a single file of 9.5GB.
             Option |  1 CPU  | 2 CPU | 4 CPU | 8 CPU
               -j   | 1h41m18 | 50m25 | 25m39 | 15m58
               -J   | 1h41m18 | 54m28 | 41m16 | 34m45
    With 200 log files of 10MB each and a total of 2GB the results are slightly different:
             Option | 1 CPU | 2 CPU | 4 CPU | 8 CPU
               -j   | 20m15 |  9m56 |  5m20 | 4m20
               -J   | 20m15 |  9m49 |  5m00 | 2m40
    So it is recommended to use -j unless you have hundreds of small log
    files and can use at least 8 CPUs.

    IMPORTANT: when you are using parallel parsing pgBadger will generate a
    lot of temporary files in the /tmp directory and will remove them at the
    end, so do not remove those files unless pgBadger is not running. They
    are all named with the following template tmp_pgbadgerXXXX.bin so they
    can be easily identified.

    pgBadger includes an automatic incremental report mode using option -I
    or --incremental. When running in this mode, pgBadger will generate one
    report per day and a cumulative report per week. Output is first done in
    binary format into the mandatory output directory (see option -O or
    --outdir), then in HTML format for daily and weekly reports with a main
    index file.

    The main index file will show a dropdown menu per week with a link to
    each week report and links to daily reports of each week.

    For example, if you run pgBadger as follows based on a daily rotated
 0 4 * * * /usr/bin/pgbadger -I -q /var/log/postgresql/postgresql.log.1 \
            -O /var/www/pg_reports/
  you will have all daily and weekly reports for the full running period.

    In this mode pgBadger will create an automatic incremental file in the
    output directory, so you don't have to use the -l option unless you want
    to change the path of that file. This means that you can run pgBadger in
    this mode each day on a log file rotated each week, and it will not
    count the log entries twice.

    To save disk space you may want to use the -X or --extra-files command
    line option to force pgBadger to write JavaScript and CSS to separate
    files in the output directory. The resources will then be loaded using
    script and link tags.

    Using the binary format it is possible to create custom incremental and
    cumulative reports. For example, if you want to refresh a pgBadger
    report each hour from a daily PostgreSQL log file, you can proceed by
    running each hour the following commands:
 pgbadger --last-parsed .pgbadger_last_state_file -o sunday/hourX.bin /var/log/pgsql/postgresql-Sun.log
    to generate the incremental data files in binary format. And to generate
    the fresh HTML report from that binary file:
pgbadger sunday/*.bin 
    Or as another example, if you generate one log file per hour and you
    want reports to be rebuilt each time the log file is rotated, proceed as
pgbadger -o day1/hour01.bin /var/log/pgsql/pglog/postgresql-2012-03-23_10.log
pgbadger -o day1/hour02.bin /var/log/pgsql/pglog/postgresql-2012-03-23_11.log
pgbadger -o day1/hour03.bin /var/log/pgsql/pglog/postgresql-2012-03-23_12.log
    When you want to refresh the HTML report, for example each time after a
    new binary file is generated, just do the following:
pgbadger -o day1_report.html day1/*.bin 
    Adjust the commands to suit your particular needs.

    JSON format is good for sharing data with other languages, which makes
    it easy to integrate pgBadger result into other monitoring tools like
    Cacti or Graphite.


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